The history of Garut Regency started on March 2nd 1811 when Balubur Limbangan Regency was dissolved by Governor General Herman W. Daendels (Dutch Colonial). The reason was the production of coffee from the area decreased and the Regent, Tumenggung Wangsakusumah II refused command to plant indigo. Balubur Limbangan Regency comprised 6 sub-districts: Balubur, Malangbong, Wanaraja, Wanakerta, Cibeureum and Papandak.
On February 16th, 1813 new Limbangan Regency was founded by Liutenant Governor Thomas S. Raffles which now becomes Garut Regency. RAA. Adiwijaya was the first Regent of Garut Regency who governed from the year of 1813 until 1821. He was well-known as Dalem Cipeujueh. The new Limbangan Regency had a capital in Suci. For a capital, the existence of Suci it was thought did not meet the requirements because of this area was crowded and quite narrow.
Regarding this matter, Regent Limbangan Adipati Adiwijaya formed a committee to find a suitable place for the capital of the Regency. In the begining, the committee found Cimurah, about 3 km to the East Suci (Currently the village is known by the name of Pidayeuheun Village). However, in this place clean water was difficult to be received so that place not suitable became the Capital. Then the committee get a suitable place for further capital, about 5 Km to West from Suci. In addition to fertile land, the place has a spring that flows to the River Cimanuk and beautiful scenery, surrounded by mountains, like Mount Cikuray, Mount Papandayan, Mount Guntur, Mount Galunggung, Mount Talaga Bodas and Mount Karacak.
When being found the spring took the form of the small lake that was closed scrub was thorny (Marantha), a committee “kakarut” or was scratched his hands until bloody. In the party of the committee, joined also in a European who went along straighten out or “ngabaladah” this place. Like that saw the hands of one of the committees was bloody, immediately asked: “Why bloody?” The person who was scratched answered, his hands kakarut. Europeans or these the Netherlands imitated words kakarut with the not fluent tongue so as his term to “gagarut”.
When being found the small pond that closed thicket of thorns (Marantha), a committee “kakarut” or was scratched his hands until bloody. In group of the committee, joined also an European who went discover this place. After he look at the hand of one of the committee is bleeding, immediately ask: “Why bleed?” The person who was scratched answered, “kakarut!”. The European said word “kakarut” as”gagarut”.
Since that time, workers in the group of the committee named to the thorny plant called “Ki Garut” and that pond was named “Ci Garut” (the location of this pond now was occupied by SLTPI, SLTPII, and SLTP IV Garut building). The area around the pond was named “Garut”. The name of “Garut” was approved by Regent Limbangan Adipati Adiwijaya to be made the Capital of the Limbangan Regency.
On 15 September 1813 the development of capital facilities and infrastructure, such as residence, the hall, office assistant resident, mosques, and square was started. In front of the hall, between the town square and the hall was gotten by “Babancong” where the Regent as well as the official of the other government gave the speech in front of the public. After the place was completed earlier, the Capital of the Limbangan Regency moved from Suci to Garut around 1821. Based on the Governor General Decree No: 60 dated May 7 1913, the name of the Limbangan Regency was replaced to the Garut Regency and had a capital the Garut city on July 1, 1913. At that time, the Regent was RAA is Wiratanudatar (1871-1915). Garut city at that time covering the three villages, namely Kota Kulon (West City) village, the Kota Wetan (East City) Village, and Margawati Village. The Garut regency covered Garut districts, Bayongbong, Cibatu, Tarogong, Leles, Balubur Limbangan, Cikajang, Bungbulang and Pameungpeuk. In the year 1915, RAA Wiratanudatar replaced by his nephew of Adipati Suria Karta Legawa (1915-1929). On August 14 1925, a decision based on the Governor General, Garut Regency government passed a stand-alone (autonomous).
Physical Development of the City
Up until the 1960 ‘s, the physical development of the Garut City was divided into three period, that is first (1813-1920) developed linearly. In the period in the Garut City often was established the building by the Government of the Netherlands for the interests of the government, invested in an effort to the plantation, the excavation of the source of the mineral and the tourist attraction. Residential development, especially around the plaza and to sweep along the road towards East Societeit Straat.
The second period (1920-1940), the Garut City developed concentrically. The change happened because in the first period was given by the service project for the inhabitants. The face of town planning began to change with the establishment of several city facilities, like the railway station, the post office, the pharmacy, the school, the hotel, shops (property of Chinese, Japan, India and Europe) as well as the market.
The third period (1940-1960-an), the development of the Garut City tended to follow the theory of the multiplied core. This development could be seen in trade zones, education, the settlement and population growth.
General Situation of the City
At the beginning of the 20th age, the Garut City referred to the pattern of the community that was heterogeneous as resulting from the urbanisation flow. The diversity of the community and the growth of the Garut City tight his connection with plantation efforts and the tourist attraction in the Garut area. Dutch who were useful in the development of the plantation and agriculture in the Garut area were K.F Holle. To recall his services, the Colonial Dutch government immortalised the Holle name to a road in the Garut City, namely the Holle road (Mandalagiri Street) and made the statue of half of the Holle chest in the Garut Town Square.
This opening of plantations joined also with the development of hotels during 1917. These hotels were the place spent the night and entertainment for the officials of the plantation or tourists that came from overseas. Hotels in the Garut City, that is the Papandayan Hotel, Hotel Villa Dolce, Hotell Belvedere, and the Hotel of Van Hengel. Outside the Garut City was gotten the Ngamplang Hotel in Cilawu, Hotel Cisurupan in Cisurupan, Hotel Melayu in Tarogong, Hotel Bagendit in Banyuresmi, Hotel Kamojang in Samarang and the Cilauteureun Hotel in Pameungpeuk. The news about the Beauty of the Garut City spread all through the world, that made the Garut City the tourist attraction.